The effects of Observational Learning, Imagery and Their Combination on Instruction of Soccer Shoot Skill



Assistant Professor Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University


The observational learning and imagery are two methods of teaching in presentations for coaches and teachers. The purpose of the present study was the effect of observational learning, imagery and their combination on acquisition and retention of soccer shoot. 45 novice male students with average imagery ability were randomly selected and matched in 3 groups (observational learning, imagery and combination). In this study we used of sport imagery questionnaires, Hall and Martin, demographic and AAHPERD soccer shoot test. Data and result of performance were analyzed by descriptive &   deductive statistics (Mixed ANOVA with repeated measures of test factor and paired-samples t test post hoc test). Results indicated that the learning resulted in acquisition and retention for 3 groups (p≤0.001). The result of performance of combination group and after that observational learning group were significantly better than imagery group in last of acquisition, immediate retention tests(p≤0.001); but there were not significant differences between the performance of observational learning, imagery and combination groups in delayed retention test. These findings suggest that combination is more effective than observational learning and imagery for individuals first learning a relatively simple, closed and discrete motor skill.